An Overview of Regular Executive MBA Programs


Official MBA programs are the best projects which are able for working experts the whole way across the nation. There are numerous kinds of the board programs for experts which are accessible in various MBA schools in India. Normal official MBA is one such course which is reasonable for the working experts. This course is ideal for the individuals who can disappear from labor for one year and complete their course. After the fulfillment of this course, they can again return to their work. Here we will examine about certain parts of the ordinary official MBA programs.

Diverse Management Programs for Working Professionals 

The ordinary official MBA programs have various courses which are given in various schools. Some of them are recorded beneath: 

• Executive Masters in Business Administration

• Executive - Post Graduate Diploma in Management

• Executive Masters in Business Administration

• Executive Education Program in Operations Management

• Executive Management of Business Finance

Diverse Management Colleges Offering These Courses

The MBA programs which are uniquely intended for the working experts are given in various administration universities the nation over. A portion of the MBA schools offering diverse official MBA programs are recorded beneath:

• Indian Institute of Management, Kolkata

• Management Development Institute, Gurgaon

• XLRI School of Business and Human Resources

• Symbiosis Institute of Business Management, Pune

• S. P Jain Institute of Management and Research

• Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management, Mumbai

• Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, New Delhi

• Faculty of Management Studies, New Delhi

• ICFAI Business School, Kolkata

• Indian Institute of Business Management and Studies, Pune

Check the fundamental qualification criteria for induction into standard business and the board programs. The general necessities are standard, for example, an advanced education with a base work understanding of 3 to 6 years. Despite the fact that specific foundations have their own arrangement of rules.

To seek after official MBA programs, applicants need to satisfy the accompanying qualification criteria:

• Candidates must have 3-5 years of expert experience

• They should have substantial CAT or GMAT score

• Candidates must have a Bachelor's Degree in any control

Subjects Covered in Regular Executive MBA Courses 

There are numerous subjects which are canvassed in the ordinary official courses of MBA. A portion of the well known subjects of this program are referenced beneath:

• Law

Business associations run under various laws and follow various conventions. This subject covers those territories and helps the up-and-comers in picking up information about organization laws.

• Human Resource

HR is a significant piece of each business association. This subject encourages the contender to find out about various parts of Human Resource.

• Business Principles

Without business standards, no business association can make any benefit. To make the associations run appropriately with benefit, the business standards are educated to the applicants.

• Accounts and Finance

Any business association whose records and money division is frail can never be effective. Each and every fiscal detail ought to be kept up for fruitful running of the business. So this subject is remembered for the customary official MBA course.

Along these lines with these ordinary one year Executive MBA programs which are given in various administration universities in India, working experts can upgrade their current profession and make a noteworthy vocation development.

Traditional VS Online MBA Programs


Understudies and experts who are intrigued to seek after a qualification in Master of Business Administration ought to consider cautiously the advantages and disadvantages of customary versus online MBA. Here is a rundown of things that guides the distinction between the two different ways toward get a MBA program to help you in picking what program to enlist:

By and large costs 

Looking at the general costs (educational cost, training materials, transportation costs and everyday costs) for the projects, it is less expensive to take up MBA online than conventional nearby. This is on the grounds that taking up online MBA can spare you a great deal on transportation and everyday costs alone since you don't need to drive to class or move to a spot close to the college you were conceded.

Relations 

It is no uncertainty that being in a homeroom advances cooperation between your cohorts and teachers. Also, since a conventional MBA program expects you to go to talks and tests in a homeroom, at that point it urges every understudy to have sound conversations and contentions with their friends and teachers, which builds up their advertising. It permits the understudies to work with various individuals, connect with shifted characters to all the more likely set them up for the genuine workplace in reality. It sets them up to be intuitive and not unapproachable in the working environment. Despite what might be expected, taking up online MBA uses online media (messages, sound and video records and e-learning programming) and virtual collaboration (talk, conversation sheets and gatherings) to pass on data and to impart and examine thoughts. This confinement in genuine connection with different understudies can upset systems administration potential which is significant in the business world. Regardless of this, online MBA understudies are sharpened in the mechanical perspective since they've been prepared utilizing the online innovation during their course, which makes this an edge in the developing progression of the web innovation these days.

Standing 

Customary MBA has consistently been better when it comes than inclination since they are increasingly preferred by understudies. Additionally, understudies who graduate through this program are exceptionally respected. Yet, with the developing business of the web advertise, numerous colleges are offering courses online to make the MBA program increasingly accessible and moderate for understudies.

Comfort 

Comfort is the significant favorable position of online MBA versus conventional MBA. Conventional MBA isn't appropriate for experts who are as yet working however needs to seek after a MBA degree since class plans are not adaptable not at all like that of online MBA. For online MBA you can organize classes fitting to your own pace and time, and in the solaces of your own home or working environment. Individuals who have work or need to remain at home to think about their children doesn't need to disturb their work or family time. There is no requirement for them to migrate or withdraw from work to go to a MBA program.

Inspiration 

Despite the fact that online MBA is progressively adaptable and helpful, it takes a great deal of self-control, inspiration and time the executives to pass the online course however this doesn't imply that taking the customary course needn't bother with a similar measure of the previously mentioned. It's simply that, taking up online course expects you to work and study freely accordingly you must be driven and in charge of your opportunity to capitalize on your learning.

A MBA program is a speculation on your vocation and future. This is the appropriate response on your interest to vocation development and money related security since it gives you an edge on your calling. Both on the web and customary MBA programs offer a similar educational plan however vary on the learning media utilized. The two may diverse in streets voyaged however with a similar goal, more chances and an engaged calling.

How Meaningful Are MBA Program Rankings?


The MBA is the most well known alumni scholarly degree. It is looked for by a large number of understudies all through the world. It isn't amazing, along these lines that MBA programs are analyzed to figure out which ones are ideal. One of the most anxiously anticipated positioning of MBA programs is that by Bloomberg's Business Week, however different periodicals, including Forbes, US News and World Report, and The Wall Street Journal distribute arrangements of MBA programs that show how a portion of the schools offering the degree rank against each other.

The distributed rankings have been cultivated in an assortment of ways, frequently in various ways by a similar production starting with one issue then onto the next. The rankings are acquired by studying or meeting senior members of business colleges, understudy scouts of organizations that enlist MBA graduates,  businesses, graduates themselves, or blends of these and different sources.

Early rankings of business colleges concentrated on twelve or so of notable enormous Ivy League and state colleges whose notorieties had just been settled. They would in general overlook many other decent MBA programs. As time advanced, the rankings were extended past the notable projects to incorporate at least twenty schools, and a few rankings currently incorporate separate records that rank the best fifty projects or top one hundred. All things considered, the attention is on a rundown of twelve or so schools that are viewed as top-level.

It isn't astonishing, given the choice strategies, that for the most part a similar gathering of schools show up in many rankings, despite the fact that not really in a similar request. The rundowns essentially consistently incorporate schools like Stanford, Harvard, Chicago, Pennsylvania's Wharton, MIT, UC Berkeley and other notable names. Likewise not astonishing is that these schools get many applications from qualified understudies and they need to dismiss around 90 percent of them. Strikingly, one examination, by Dr. Martin Schatz* indicated that if schools are positioned essentially by the GMAT scores of the approaching class of MBA understudies in addition to beginning pay of graduates, the rundown is fundamentally the same as the rankings accomplished by costly studies and meetings directed by the periodicals that distribute rankings.

Yet, what do the rankings truly mean? Does it make a difference that Berkeley is #3 one year, #5 the following, and #2 per year later? Or then again that Stanford is #2 in Business Week however just #5 in another distribution? The truth of the matter is that Wharton exceeds expectations in account, MIT exceeds expectations in quantitative courses, and Harvard exceeds expectations in utilizing the case technique for instructing. Each school has qualities and shortcomings. Rather than searching for the top schools to which an imminent understudy can apply, it might be smarter to take a gander at rankings that attention on qualities that are critical to the candidate.

One wellspring of rankings takes a gander at the main 40 MBA programs positioned by singular qualities, for example, GMAT score of understudies, GPA of understudies, compensation earned by graduates, selectivity of the program (number of candidates dismissed), number of enrollment specialists visiting the schools, and a positioning dependent on loads relegated to criteria that are generally utilized by imminent understudies looking for MBA programs that fit them. The site clarifies that the rankings it gives on every individual model must be cautiously deciphered and not fully trusted.

*Schatz, Martin, "What's up With MBA Ranking Surveys?, Management Research News, 1993, pp. 15-18.

Forthcoming MBA understudies looking for MBA projects to which they can apply ought to counsel the Official MBA Guide before choosing a program. With in excess of 2,000 MBA programs recorded around the world, the Official MBA Guide is the most extensive information base of program data. It is a free open assistance and highlights a web crawler that empowers contender to determine their inclinations and criteria to acquire a positioned rundown of MBA programs that fulfill their necessities. Search for it at http://officialmbaguide.org and discover the MBA program that fits you best.

The Perks Of Opting For A Graduate Program


Completing a higher education is one of the most widely recognized objectives of understudies. Thusly, they can have better openings for work. Aside from that, they can likewise acquire better benefits. In any case, because of the expanding number of employment candidates, finding an occupation is troublesome. Fortunately, there are approaches to have better openings for work in the wake of graduating, for example, selecting an alumni program. With this, crisp alumni can appreciate the accompanying advantages.

Secure an enormous preferred position in the work rivalry 

Above all else, while deciding on an alumni program, you can make sure about a gigantic bit of leeway in the work rivalry. Obviously, there are a ton of candidates who wish to land a similar position that you are peering toward for. Luckily, by finishing an alumni program, people will have a superior bit of leeway in finding a new line of work since organizations realize that graduate projects get ready understudies to become solid representatives and a decent individual from the general public.

Lessen work confound 

The following advantage of choosing graduate projects is to lessen work confuse. It happens when there is an expansion in the quantity of experts in a specific business segment. Along these lines, there are various occupations on different divisions. Therefore, a few understudies choose to go after a position that isn't appropriate for their aptitudes and information. By selecting an alumni program, understudies can sharpen their abilities in specific divisions, which can assist them with taking care of various employment positions in various segments.

Better pay openings 

Another advantage of this program is to acquire better salary openings. More often than not, organizations offer least wages for new alumni since they have next to zero work understanding. Evidently, by finishing an alumni program, organizations can offer you with better wages. This is conceivable since organizations realize that graduate projects help people to get skilful and learned in any business division. Consequently, they can suit the necessities of the business effectively and appropriately, which can help entrepreneurs accomplish their objectives.

Better notoriety 

At last, these projects for graduates can likewise assist people with improving their notoriety. By improving their notoriety, it is simpler to get an occupation. Furthermore, having a decent notoriety can likewise assist you with tempting customers to work with you, which can likewise help increment business benefits.

Undergrad Programs Vs Graduate Programs


Since it has been factually demonstrated that advanced degree prompts higher earnings, the inquiry highest in everybody's psyche is what amount of training does one have to prevail in the corporate world?

While the response to that question relies upon a few elements, there are sure things you can consider before settling fair and square of instruction you'd prefer to seek after. For that, you should initially comprehend the distinction between undergrad projects and advanced educations.

An undergrad program is a degree that can be earned after secondary school. The two most regular sorts of undergrad programs are Associate's and Bachelor's degrees. Graduate projects, then again, are propelled degrees accessible to the individuals who have moved on from an undergrad school program. Ace's and Doctoral degrees prompting a PhD are the two principle advanced education programs.

Significant Differences 

The principal contrast between the two sorts of degrees is the degree of specialization. Contingent upon your program, a college degree gives an establishment in a particular field or a review of a few subjects, setting you up for various sorts of section level occupations. Graduate projects, then again, hope to expand on that establishment. The coursework is undeniably increasingly extraordinary, centered, and had some expertise in an advanced education.

Understudies of advanced education programs are required to add to study hall conversations, take up autonomous research work, compose a theory and guard it before their teachers and friends.

The subsequent factor to consider is the work opportunity offered by both of these degrees. While there are sure callings like law, medication, scholastics, and so on., where an advanced education is important, there are a lot of profession decisions open to the individuals who have a college degree.

So, graduate projects include an incentive regarding giving up-and-comers an upper hand in the activity showcase, expanding their attractiveness, and improving their procuring potential. As per the U.S. Branch of Labor, the individuals who held a Master's qualification made $1,257 every week in 2009 when contrasted with $1,025 every week earned by the individuals who had a Bachelor's certificate. (bls.gov/emp/ep_chart_001.htm)

Be that as it may, the general time duty for an advanced education is more prominent. A Master's qualification is ordinarily for eighteen months to two years. Add to that four years for a Bachelor's certificate, and you should spend at least six years in school on the off chance that you need to seek after an advanced education.

A college degree, then again, can be earned in significantly less time - four years in the event that you are going for a Bachelor's and two years on the off chance that you are seeking after an Associate's. Be that as it may, your procuring potential and headway openings may not be equivalent to they would be if you somehow managed to get a Master's qualification.

Is Grad School for You? 

Graduate school is really costly and requests a colossal measure of difficult work. Likewise, since most understudies as of now have a couple of obligations when they enter graduate school, you may need to shuffle a few duties at the same time.

Subsequently, you ought to consider well early if graduate school is for you by assessing your vocation objectives, scholarly tendency, fiscal circumstance, and individual conditions.

While a few understudies like to quick straight into an alumni program in the wake of finishing their college degree, others want to labor for a couple of years and afterward enter graduate school. This has a few points of interest.

To begin with, you will have the option to make sense of in the event that you truly appreciate working in your picked field before submitting more years to instruction around there. Next, you'll convey your important industry experience to the study hall and have the option to draw considerably more out of your coursework.

You will likewise have a couple of long periods of reserve funds to place into school educational cost and can presumably bring down your credit reliance. At last, on the off chance that you understand this was not the vocation you'd been longing for, an advanced education in an alternate field will assist you with doing a change to another profession.

There are advantages of both undergrad and advanced educations. Whichever one you pick, settle on sure you've settled on the choice with your eyes open.

Prominence of Online Graduate Programs


On the off chance that you are considering acquiring an advanced education on the web, at that point you are not the only one. An ever increasing number of experts are seeking after degrees in online alumni projects to propel their professions. New graduates are likewise deciding to seek after cutting edge instruction on the web. These days, online training has become standard, and online advanced education programs are accessible in a wide scope of majors including design, business, PCs and IT, instruction, building, humanities, law, criminal equity, physical sciences and sociologies. In this way, whatever degree program you are searching for, you are practically sure to think that its on the web.

Authenticity of online advanced educations 

Today, it's not simply online-degree-just schools that offer classes. Most of conventional schools and colleges, including the most lofty ivy alliances, are currently offering on the web advanced education programs. These advanced educations and testament programs convey a similar weight and authenticity as the more generally got degrees. Any disgrace that used to be related with online degrees has practically vanished. Most bosses treat an online advanced education with a similar regard as a customary degree.

Developing number of online alumni programs 

It would be truly elusive a school or college today that isn't offering an online degree program. The present yield of understudies is incredibly open to utilizing the most recent data innovation and see no issue in getting to course data and assignments over the Internet. An ever increasing number of understudies are requesting the adaptability of taking on the web classes and to stay aware of this interest and remain serious schools are offering more projects on the web.

Accreditation 

The most significant interesting point while taking on an online degree program is accreditation. A certify establishment must satisfy certain guidelines set out by the authorizing organizations. A school must be authorize with the end goal for you to have the option to move credits to another college. Also, unaccredited schools do quality for their understudies apply for government monetary guide programs, Do not take a crack at any program that doesn't have current accreditation.

Expenses of online degree programs 

Possibly you are imagining that getting an online degree is going to spare you a lot of cash. All things considered, it might really cost you more. Numerous understudies believe that online classes ought to be less expensive, all things considered, there is physical study hall to outfit and warmth, isn't that so? However, most of open and state schools are charging more, here and there generously more, for the accommodation of an online degree. Why? In all probability, since they can pull off it. Online degrees are sought after because of their adaptability and comfort and a significant number of the present understudies (and coming back to class experts) are eager to pay more for that accommodation. So before you join up with an online advanced education program thinking you are setting aside yourself some cash, investigate the conventional course costs and perceive how they look at.

Locate the top online alumni programs 

With the entirety of the decisions out there, finding the correct program to address your issues can be troublesome. One site we've found to assist restricted with bringing down the determination is U.S. News rankings of the best doctoral level colleges. There you can discover data and appraisals on in excess of 1,200 alumni programs, most contribution online advanced educations.

Neo-Evolutionism with special emphasis on Steward and White




Contents



Background:

The "golden age" of social evolutionism had basically ended by the 1890s, and after that time a sharp reaction against evolutionary theories emerged. In anthropology this reaction was led by Franz Boas and his students and disciples and lasted into the 1940s and 1950s. The Boasian school objected to evolutionary theories on four basic counts: the use of an illegitimate methodological device, the Comparative Method; the development of rigid schemes of unilinear evolution in which all societies were assumed to progress in lockstep fashion through the same set of stages; inadequate recognition of the process of diffusion; and the illegitimate equation of evolution with progress (see Sanderson 1990). Nonetheless, by the 1930s the extreme historical particularism espoused by the Boasian school of anthropology began to be challenged, and an "evolutionary revival" was underway.         

Revivals:

The first to lead this revival was the archaeologist V. Gordon Childe (1936, 1951). Emphasizing the broad technological changes characteristic of human prehistory, Childe identified two great technological revolutions that had occurred in several regions of the world. The Neolithic Revolution brought about the domestication of plants and animals. It gave humans the possibility of accumulating economic surpluses, and thus paved the way for the second revolution, which Childe called the "urban revolution." This involved the passage of human societies into a much more complex form characterized by occupational specialization, cities, sharp class divisions, and the state. Beginning in the 1940s, Leslie White (1943, 1959a) developed a version of social evolutionism similar to Childe's. White insisted that evolutionary theories did not try to explain specific sequences of historical change, but rather focused on the overall movement of human culture as a whole. He formulated a law to explain this general evolution of culture, which stated that culture evolved in proportion to the amount of energy harnessed per capita per year, or by an increase in the efficiency of putting this energy to work. In other words, technological change is the driving force of the evolution of culture. Julian Steward, the third important figure in the evolutionary revival, reacted against what he thought were the overly general and excessively simplified evolutionary conceptions of Childe and White, which he called "universal evolution." He proposed instead what he termed "multilinear evolution" (Steward 1955). Multilinear evolution concentrated less on the overall movement of history and more on the different lines along which social evolution moved. Steward granted that there were broad parallels in historical change, but he did not want these overstated. There were still many different lines along which evolution radiated, and these could not be ignored.        
Since about 1960, there has been a new wave of important evolutionary work among American anthropologists, most of whom have been greatly influenced by the evolutionism of Childe and White. Marshall Sahlins (1958) wrote an important book on the evolution of social stratification that was inspired by the technological emphasis of Childe and White. He also contributed an important article (Sahlins 1960) that distinguished between general and specific evolution, the former being the overall movement of historical development, the latter the more specific radiation of culture and society along many lines. Elman Service (1962/71) and Robert Carneiro (1970) have also made important contributions to the study of political evolution. Service advanced the typology of "band tribe chiefdom state" to characterize political evolution, a typol- ogy that has been widely employed in ethnographic and archaeological research. The evolution from one stage to another is a movement to more hierarchical and complexly integrated political systems. Service's theory is a kind of functionalist one in which new political forms are said to evolve because of their greater functional effectiveness. Carneiro, by contrast, presented a conflict theory to account for the evolution of chiefdoms and states. He saw population pressure and warfare as contributing to the development of more complex political systems in areas that are environmentally circumscribed. As population pressure and warfare increase, people have nowhere to go and ultimately become conquered and subordinated by other groups. As a result, political systems grow increasingly powerful and complex. Gerhard Lenski (1970), a sociologist by training, worked out a well-known theory of social evolution that was largely an extension and elaboration of the ideas of Childe and White. Lenski saw technological expansion as the prime mover of social evolution. As technology expands, economies become more productive and economic surpluses emerge and expand. These technoeconomic changes ramify throughout social life and lead to major evolutionary transformations. One of Lenski's most important applications of this theory was to the evolution of social stratification. 
Marvin Harris (1977, 1979) has presented a quite different conception of social evolution. Rather than viewing technology as evolution's driving force, he sees most people throughout history resisting technological change because of the greater costs in human time and energy it requires. What drives social evolution is the tendency of humans to suffer eventual depletions in their standard of living as the result of population pressure and environmental degradation. People must then work harder and longer and eventually advance their technology   that is, they must intensify their production   just to keep their standard of living from falling even lower. But these changes produce yet further (and even greater) depletions, and so the depletion intensification depletion process spirals ever forward and upward. 
 The current situation is a mixed one. In recent years there has been a substantial reaction against general theories of historical change, and many scholars now assume it is only possible to do limited kinds of theorizing about specific historical situations and trajectories. All of this has meant a sharp decline in confidence in any type of evolutionary theory. Indeed, some social scientists have been severely critical of evolutionism (see Sanderson 1990: ch. 9). Nonetheless, many social scientists remain committed to evolutionary analyses and extensive research on social evolution continues. This is especially true in anthropology and its subfield of archaeology. Archaeology has long been evolutionary, and, although some archaeologists have turned against evolutionism, most probably remain within that camp.  

Julian Steward:

Steward's materialist orientation likely stems from a combination of factors, including his preparatory school experience, undergraduate studies, early fieldwork in the 1930s in archaeology in the harsh environments of the southwest and Great Basin and Plateau, ethnographic field experience with the Shoshoni (whose culture appears to have focused on survival), and the Dust Bowl and the Great Depression. Through his fieldwork he cultivated cultural ecology which eventually became a means to the end of his theory of multilinear evolution (Steward 1938). Ultimately Steward was always interested in the scientific and materialist explanation of culture, including causality; that is, discovering laws of regularities in the patterns, functions, and processes of cultural diversity. This penchant for theorizing and generalizing also set Steward apart from the Boasians. In short, Steward was a rebel, an inclination that actually started in his youth, when he turned away from the Christian Science religion of his parents to pursue instead natural causes through scientific explanations. 
These considerations help explain why Steward became the single most important anthropologist in the development of cultural ecology from the 1930s into the 1960s. In his field research, publications, and teaching, Steward persistently developed a theoretical and methodological framework for studying CULTURAL CHANGE as adaptation in which environmental influences were especially important. Unfortunately, Steward did not develop his theory and method in a single, readily accessible publication. Rather, his theory and method have to be extracted from numerous sources, including two edited books of diverse essays (Steward 1955, 1977). 
 It is important to clearly distinguish two different levels at which Steward operated   the ethnographic sphere, in which a particular culture was described through intensive fieldwork in the Boasian tradition, and the ethnological sphere, in which a small number of cultures were compared for the purposes of generalization and explanation. Cultural ecology has continued to strongly influence anthropological research on human environment interactions, while multilinear evolution has been pursued to a much lesser extent (Carneiro 1990; Kirch 1984). However, Steward is seldom adequately acknowledged by researchers studying cultural ecology or multilinear evolution. 
            Rather than arguing on the basis of available literature that either the environment rigidly determines culture (environmental determinism) or the environment allows some degree of latitude for alternative cultural responses (environmental possibilism), Steward avoided prejudgement and advocacy, allowing for influences in either direction (environment to culture and culture to environment). He subjected this relationship to direct empirical investigation through fieldwork on particular cultures in their habitat. Through ethnographic fieldwork with the Shoshoni and Paiute, Steward (1955) specified three successive but interrelated steps in the investigation of the cultural ecology of a particular society: (1) the natural resources and the technology used to extract and process them; (2) the social organization of work for these subsistence and economic activities; and (3) the influence of these two phenomena on other aspects of culture, including social, political, and religious institutions. In this manner Steward developed an ecological framework for describing and to some degree explaining a particular culture. This framework focused on the specific behavior involved in the technology and work of extracting natural resources for survival. Thus Steward's approach has proven most applicable to societies with economies focused on subsistence; that is, foragers or hunter gatherers, Swidden horticulturalists, fishers, and pastoral nomads. 
 Steward, however, was not satisfied with this particular level of research. Ultimately he was more interested in the comparative level in order to discover the underlying causes and laws of cultural phenomena. He was especially concerned with employing empirical data from research in cultural ecology to compare a small sample of cultures in order to formulate generalizations about limited parallels in patterns, functions, and processes. He called this "multilinear evolution," as distinct from the unilinear evolution of Edward Tylor and Lewis Henry MORGAN in the late nineteenth century, or the universal evolution of his contemporary Leslie White (Carneiro 1973). Steward's methodological approach to multilinear evolution was to select for detailed comparison a small number of particular cultures that were in similar environments (e.g., types of desert or forest) and at the same level of sociocultural integration (Family, Band, Tribe, Chiefdom, Or State), but widely separated geographically. The great spatial distance between the cultures chosen for the sample was supposed to eliminate the possibility of cultural similarities arising from DIFFUSION, thus controlling for the historical factor that had been so prominent in the anthropology of the Boasians. Accordingly, similarities in the sample of cultures that Steward selected would have to be the result of parallel adaptations, that is, similar responses to similar environmental conditions. In this way Steward attempted to go beyond ethnographic description to the scientific and materialist explanation of cultural similarities and differences (Sponsel 1987). 
 The principal criticisms of Steward's approach are that his theoretical concepts were not very clear and useful; that his method was mostly intuitive; that he was a functionalist; and that he focused rather narrowly on subsistence economy to the neglect of many other important factors, such as population dynamics, natural hazards, political institutions, and religion (see J. Anderson 1973; Orlove 1980; Vayda & Rappaport 1968). However, assessed in historical context, Steward's contributions were and remain significant.

Leslie White:

White's support of evolutionary theory was not well received until near the end of his career, in part because he took aim at Boas and his followers in a polemical style that took no prisoners. His position, stated most completely in The evolution of culture (1959a), was strongly materialist and became best known for its assertion that use of energy per capita was the best way to measure social complexity and rank societies in an evolutionary scheme. Although Julian STEWARD (whom White had replaced at Michigan) argued along similar lines, White rejected his model as not general enough and too focused on the environment (Carniero 1973). 
The environmental objection may seem strange for a materialist, but White's other passion was promoting what he called "culturology," the idea that CULTURE was defined only by human manipulation of symbols and formed an autonomous class of phenomena that could be studied as a science. Similar to KROEBER's (1917a) "superorganic," culture was something real that existed outside the individual, independent of psychology, biology, or the environment. Expressed at length in The science of culture (1949), White's theory suggested that there could be laws of culture. Many found White's position contradictory: how could a materialist give primacy to cultural determinism when his own evolutionary model had focused on such noncultural criteria as energy use? Nor were students of symbolic anthropology likely to believe that they were producing a set of scientific laws. 
The specifics of White's theories have ultimately proved less influential than his support of the principle of evolution. White insisted on its value over many decades when such models were looked upon with distaste or derision. His writings and his students laid the groundwork for evolution's reemergence into the mainstream of anthropology beginning in the 1960s, although few adopted his specific models. By the end of his career White had received numerous awards, including his election as President of the American Anthropological Association in 1964. After retiring from Michigan in 1970, he moved to the University of California at Santa Barbara, where he died in 1975.
Introduction to neo-evolutionism (bilingual meant for my college students)